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Eddy current testing (ET) is an NDT technique based on inducing electrical currents in the material being inspected and observing the interaction between those currents and the material. Eddy currents are generated by coils in the test probe and monitored simultaneously by measuring the coil's electrical impedance.
Magnetic particle testing (MT), also known as magnetic particle inspection (MPI), is used to locate surface and slightly sub-surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials by introducing a magnetic flux into the material.
Penetrant testing (PT), also known as dye penetrant inspection (DPI), locates surface-breaking discontinuities by covering the item with a penetrating liquid, which is drawn into the discontinuity by capillary action. After the removal of the excess penetrant, the indication is made visible by the application of a developer.
Ultrasonic testing (UT) measures the time for high frequency (0.5-50 MHz) pulses of ultrasound to travel through the inspection material. If a discontinuity is present, the ultrasound returns to the probe in a period other than what would be expected of a fault-free specimen.
Visual testing (VT), involves the visual observation of the surface of a test object to evaluate the presence of surface discontinuities. With sufficient lighting and access, visual techniques provide simple, rapid methods of testing. Close visual testing (CVT) refers to viewing directly with the eye, with or without magnification, while remote visual testing (CVT) refers to the use of optical devices such as borescopes and fiberscopes.